Orthodontic treatment is a dental treatment and can be associated with adverse effects upon the treatment execution. During orthodontic therapy, there are many variables related to the patient which can influence its occurrence. Among the variables related are gender, age, genetic predisposition, psychological type, and malocclusion. It’s necessary to know the detailed particularities to reduce these complications. For instance, there are several physiopathological statuses to consider which can profoundly influence orthodontic therapy. A success treatment like cosmetic braces depends on the patient’s understanding and physician compliance such as attending periodical appointments, device maintenance, and oral hygiene.

The risk classification includes the following:

– Condition localization such as local effects and systematic effects.
– Condition severity like the ceramic crown fracture, enamel fracture during debonding, and decalcifications.
– Orthodontists roles in the side effects.

Adverse effects of comprehensive orthodontic treatment are periodontal disease, root absorption, pulpal changes, pain, and temporomandibular dysfunction.

Periodontal diseasePeriodontal disease

This is associated with alveolar bone loss, gingivitis, and loss of gingival support. The periodontal reaction depends on the presence of systematic conditions, host resistance, and the composition of dental plaque. Lifestyle factors which can contribute include smoking and uncontrolled diabetes. The primary causative agent is mostly the bacteria present in the dental plaque.

Root absorption

Limited root absorption is considered as an orthodontic treatment consequence. Hormonal disturbance and dietary deficiency are significant factors of root absorption. Root absorption effects increase with the duration of treatment. Patients should be informed that active treatment must be stopped for at least three months.

Pulpal changes

Pulpal reaction has no long-term significance and mostly occur in the form of mild inflammatory response. Usage of uncontrolled forces and periapical radiographs by the orthodontist may lead to pulp loss. During this treatment, an optimal light should be used.

Pain

This is the common adverse effect associated with this treatment. Previous studies show that around 30% of orthodontic patients discontinue this treatment. The depression is associated with tension, pressure, or teeth soreness. Patients should be informed to reduce anxiety. Additionally, the clinician can request the patients to chew gums containing aspirin.

Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD)

It involves internal derangement, muscle pain, and degenerative disorders. Presence of posterior crossbite and anterior open bite are the common consequences of TMD. Patients with acute signs and symptoms of TMD should avoid orthodontic treatment.